четверг, 1 ноября 2007 г.

implants

Implants: The next generation
(Report; Global) (You need Adobe Acrobat Reader to access this document) http://www.infoforhealth.org/pr/k7/k7.pdf
Population Reports. Series K: Injectables and Implants. 2007 Oct;(7):1-19.
Ramchandran D | Upadhyay UD

Related Tool: Implants: Tools for Providers (You need Adobe Acrobat Reader to access this document) http://www.infoforhealth.org/inforeports/implants/implants.pdf
Family planning programs around the world are introducing the new one- or two-rod implant systems Implanon(r), Jadelle(r), and in some countries Sino-Implant (II)(r). By 2008 Norplant(r), the six-capsule implant system, first introduced in mid-1980s, will no longer be available. Like Norplant, the new implants are highly effective, and like Norplant, they alter bleeding patterns. Their most important improvement over Norplant is easier and quicker insertion and removal. Sino-Implant (II) may also cost much less than other implants. The new implants are recommended for as much as three to five years of use, depending on the make. Thus they are particularly suitable for women who want to space births. Indeed, for many women implants are a convenient method. Once inserted into a woman's arm, the implants do not require any action by the user. Since implants do not contain estrogen, they do
not decrease production of breast milk and thus are suitable for breastfeeding women. They are also a good choice for women who do not want more children but are not ready to opt for sterilization, which is permanent. With new implants making the method easier to provide, more programs may want to begin offering implants. Programs currently offering Norplant will need to consider how to make the transition to the newer implants and to meet possibly greater demand.

Silence, condoms, and masculinity: Heterosexual Japanese males negotiating contraception
(Abstract; subscription needed for full text; Asia) http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X04264633
Men and Masculinities. 2007 Oct;10(2):153-177.
Castro-Vazquez G | Kishi I
To investigate how some Japanese graduate students understand their masculine identity and negotiate sexual encounters and condom use, the authors interviewed sixty twenty-four-year-old to twenty-six-year-old heterosexual men during the summer of 1997. They used a set of three interviews covering three areas: home, school and/or job, and sexual life. In talking about sexual encounters and decision making about contraception, they found that male's responsibility and protection are considered the main reasons for keeping decisions under their control. Allusions to sexuality as an act closely related to reproduction make condoms to be regarded as a barrier, which negates the pleasure of sex and interferes with arousal. The authors did not find any reference to "safer sex." Inaccurate information and ignorance about methods of contraception seemed to be constant. The association of condoms with contraception seemed to deny the possibilities of condoms as protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Fertility, age structure and demographic transition in the former Soviet Republics: The Central Asian Republics in focus
(Abstract; subscription needed for full text; Global | Asia) http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114300381/ABSTRACT
Population, Space and Place. 2007 Nov-Dec;13(6):433-454.
Gentile M
Synthesising data from Soviet and post-Soviet statistical sources, this paper provides a general overview of some of the major population trends of the Former Soviet Union with a special focus on the Central Asian Republics. The paper investigates the characteristics of the countries' vital statistics, paths of demographic transition and age structure as they have developed during the past 50-60 years. Particular emphasis is placed upon data and methodological problems encountered when doing population research on the region.


Population change due to geographic mobility in Albania, 1989 -- 2001, and the repercussions of internal migration for the enlargement of Tirana
(Abstract; subscription needed for full text; Europe) http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114284004/ABSTRACT
Population, Space and Place. 2007 Nov-Dec;13(6):471-481.
Agorastakis M | Sidiropoulos G
Being a country in transition, Albania has sustained vast political and socio-economic changes over the past 15 years, mostly due to its engagement in democratisation and transformation to an open market economy. The pathway to transition has involved economic hardship and political unrest and has been accompanied by intense, large-scale, geographical mobility. This paper describes population change due to internal and international migration, 1989-2001, using Census data at district level. Its contribution is a technical one in applying a method that allows new estimates to be made of the scale of internal migration in Albania. Descriptive analysis of population changes in 36 Albanian districts, based on the last two censuses, lead to the identification of poles of attraction of internal migrants. Limited data concerning the 1989 Census and the 12 years between the censuses resulted in
the creation of various indices that characterise internal migration, such as the Attraction and Expulsion Index stemming from the Origin-Destination Matrix of the districts. In addition an Index of Conservation of the population and an Index of External Migration were also derived at the district level. By considering internal and international migration as two separate phenomena, we emphasise their uniqueness in affecting population change in Albania. The District of Tirana, capital of Albania, absorbed the majority of the inflow of internal migrants. The latter part of the paper focuses on the population of Tirana as the county's major migration destination.

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